These overview

A data structure providing “inclusive-or” as opposed to Either’s “exclusive-or”.

If you interpret Either<E, A> as suggesting the computation may either fail or succeed (exclusively), then These<E, A> may fail, succeed, or do both at the same time.

There are a few ways to interpret the both case:

  • You can think of a computation that has a non-fatal error.
  • You can think of a computation that went as far as it could before erroring.
  • You can think of a computation that keeps track of errors as it completes.

Another way you can think of These<E, A> is saying that we want to handle E kind of data, A kind of data, or both E and A kind of data at the same time. This is particularly useful when it comes to displaying UI’s.

(description adapted from https://package.elm-lang.org/packages/joneshf/elm-these)

Adapted from https://github.com/purescript-contrib/purescript-these

Added in v2.0.0


Table of contents


Bifunctor

bimap

Map a pair of functions over the two type arguments of the bifunctor.

Signature

export declare const bimap: <E, G, A, B>(f: (e: E) => G, g: (a: A) => B) => (fa: These<E, A>) => These<G, B>

Added in v2.0.0

mapLeft

Map a function over the first type argument of a bifunctor.

Signature

export declare const mapLeft: <E, G>(f: (e: E) => G) => <A>(fa: These<E, A>) => These<G, A>

Added in v2.0.0

Foldable

foldMap

Signature

export declare const foldMap: <M>(M: Monoid<M>) => <A>(f: (a: A) => M) => <E>(fa: These<E, A>) => M

Added in v2.0.0

reduce

Signature

export declare const reduce: <A, B>(b: B, f: (b: B, a: A) => B) => <E>(fa: These<E, A>) => B

Added in v2.0.0

reduceRight

Signature

export declare const reduceRight: <A, B>(b: B, f: (a: A, b: B) => B) => <E>(fa: These<E, A>) => B

Added in v2.0.0

Functor

map

map can be used to turn functions (a: A) => B into functions (fa: F<A>) => F<B> whose argument and return types use the type constructor F to represent some computational context.

Signature

export declare const map: <A, B>(f: (a: A) => B) => <E>(fa: These<E, A>) => These<E, B>

Added in v2.0.0

combinators

swap

Signature

export declare const swap: <E, A>(fa: These<E, A>) => These<A, E>

Added in v2.4.0

constructors

both

Signature

export declare function both<E, A>(left: E, right: A): These<E, A>

Added in v2.0.0

fromOptions

Takes a pair of Options and attempts to create a These from them

Signature

export declare function fromOptions<E, A>(fe: Option<E>, fa: Option<A>): Option<These<E, A>>

Example

import { fromOptions, left, right, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'
import { none, some } from 'fp-ts/lib/Option'

assert.deepStrictEqual(fromOptions(none, none), none)
assert.deepStrictEqual(fromOptions(some('a'), none), some(left('a')))
assert.deepStrictEqual(fromOptions(none, some(1)), some(right(1)))
assert.deepStrictEqual(fromOptions(some('a'), some(1)), some(both('a', 1)))

Added in v2.0.0

left

Signature

export declare function left<E = never, A = never>(left: E): These<E, A>

Added in v2.0.0

leftOrBoth

Signature

export declare function leftOrBoth<E>(e: E): <A>(ma: Option<A>) => These<E, A>

Example

import { leftOrBoth, left, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'
import { none, some } from 'fp-ts/lib/Option'

assert.deepStrictEqual(leftOrBoth('a')(none), left('a'))
assert.deepStrictEqual(leftOrBoth('a')(some(1)), both('a', 1))

Added in v2.0.0

Signature

export declare function right<E = never, A = never>(right: A): These<E, A>

Added in v2.0.0

rightOrBoth

Signature

export declare function rightOrBoth<A>(a: A): <E>(me: Option<E>) => These<E, A>

Example

import { rightOrBoth, right, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'
import { none, some } from 'fp-ts/lib/Option'

assert.deepStrictEqual(rightOrBoth(1)(none), right(1))
assert.deepStrictEqual(rightOrBoth(1)(some('a')), both('a', 1))

Added in v2.0.0

destructors

fold

Signature

export declare function fold<E, A, B>(
  onLeft: (e: E) => B,
  onRight: (a: A) => B,
  onBoth: (e: E, a: A) => B
): (fa: These<E, A>) => B

Added in v2.0.0

getLeft

Returns an E value if possible

Signature

export declare function getLeft<E, A>(fa: These<E, A>): Option<E>

Example

import { getLeft, left, right, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'
import { none, some } from 'fp-ts/lib/Option'

assert.deepStrictEqual(getLeft(left('a')), some('a'))
assert.deepStrictEqual(getLeft(right(1)), none)
assert.deepStrictEqual(getLeft(both('a', 1)), some('a'))

Added in v2.0.0

getLeftOnly

Returns the E value if and only if the value is constructed with Left

Signature

export declare function getLeftOnly<E, A>(fa: These<E, A>): Option<E>

Example

import { getLeftOnly, left, right, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'
import { none, some } from 'fp-ts/lib/Option'

assert.deepStrictEqual(getLeftOnly(left('a')), some('a'))
assert.deepStrictEqual(getLeftOnly(right(1)), none)
assert.deepStrictEqual(getLeftOnly(both('a', 1)), none)

Added in v2.0.0

getRight

Returns an A value if possible

Signature

export declare function getRight<E, A>(fa: These<E, A>): Option<A>

Example

import { getRight, left, right, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'
import { none, some } from 'fp-ts/lib/Option'

assert.deepStrictEqual(getRight(left('a')), none)
assert.deepStrictEqual(getRight(right(1)), some(1))
assert.deepStrictEqual(getRight(both('a', 1)), some(1))

Added in v2.0.0

getRightOnly

Returns the A value if and only if the value is constructed with Right

Signature

export declare function getRightOnly<E, A>(fa: These<E, A>): Option<A>

Example

import { getRightOnly, left, right, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'
import { none, some } from 'fp-ts/lib/Option'

assert.deepStrictEqual(getRightOnly(left('a')), none)
assert.deepStrictEqual(getRightOnly(right(1)), some(1))
assert.deepStrictEqual(getRightOnly(both('a', 1)), none)

Added in v2.0.0

toTuple

Signature

export declare function toTuple<E, A>(e: E, a: A): (fa: These<E, A>) => [E, A]

Example

import { toTuple, left, right, both } from 'fp-ts/lib/These'

assert.deepStrictEqual(toTuple('a', 1)(left('b')), ['b', 1])
assert.deepStrictEqual(toTuple('a', 1)(right(2)), ['a', 2])
assert.deepStrictEqual(toTuple('a', 1)(both('b', 2)), ['b', 2])

Added in v2.0.0

guards

isBoth

Returns true if the these is an instance of Both, false otherwise

Signature

export declare function isBoth<E, A>(fa: These<E, A>): fa is Both<E, A>

Added in v2.0.0

isLeft

Returns true if the these is an instance of Left, false otherwise

Signature

export declare function isLeft<E, A>(fa: These<E, A>): fa is Left<E>

Added in v2.0.0

isRight

Returns true if the these is an instance of Right, false otherwise

Signature

export declare function isRight<E, A>(fa: These<E, A>): fa is Right<A>

Added in v2.0.0

instances

URI

Signature

export declare const URI: 'These'

Added in v2.0.0

URI (type alias)

Signature

export type URI = typeof URI

Added in v2.0.0

bifunctorThese

Signature

export declare const bifunctorThese: Bifunctor2<'These'>

Added in v2.7.0

foldableThese

Signature

export declare const foldableThese: Foldable2<'These'>

Added in v2.7.0

functorThese

Signature

export declare const functorThese: Functor2<'These'>

Added in v2.7.0

getApplicative

Signature

export declare function getApplicative<E>(SE: Semigroup<E>): Applicative2C<URI, E>

Added in v2.7.0

getEq

Signature

export declare function getEq<E, A>(EE: Eq<E>, EA: Eq<A>): Eq<These<E, A>>

Added in v2.0.0

getMonad

Signature

export declare function getMonad<E>(SE: Semigroup<E>): Monad2C<URI, E> & MonadThrow2C<URI, E>

Added in v2.0.0

getSemigroup

Signature

export declare function getSemigroup<E, A>(SE: Semigroup<E>, SA: Semigroup<A>): Semigroup<These<E, A>>

Added in v2.0.0

getShow

Signature

export declare function getShow<E, A>(SE: Show<E>, SA: Show<A>): Show<These<E, A>>

Added in v2.0.0

these

Signature

export declare const these: Functor2<'These'> & Bifunctor2<'These'> & Foldable2<'These'> & Traversable2<'These'>

Added in v2.0.0

traversableThese

Signature

export declare const traversableThese: Traversable2<'These'>

Added in v2.7.0

model

Both (interface)

Signature

export interface Both<E, A> {
  readonly _tag: 'Both'
  readonly left: E
  readonly right: A
}

Added in v2.0.0

These (type alias)

Signature

export type These<E, A> = Either<E, A> | Both<E, A>

Added in v2.0.0

utils

sequence

Signature

export declare const sequence: Sequence2<'These'>

Added in v2.6.3

traverse

Signature

export declare const traverse: PipeableTraverse2<'These'>

Added in v2.6.3